A database is a collection of multiple and uniquely formatted data. In addition, a database is a collection of files, reports, data structure, tables, queries, views, and other elements.
DBMS vs RDBMS
DBMS stands for Database Management System and RDBMS stands for Relational Data Base Management System. Some major key points in between DBMS and RDBMS.
Database testing is a process of the major functions of a software product and service due to its test cases.
Why the Need for Database Testing?
As there are a lot of user activities happens over the internet world every second. Consequently, a lot of data is generated. This data comes from multiple sources, like data browsing, filling registration forms, and online shopping. In addition, helpful assistance of database testing plays a very important role in keeping much as like data consistency, data integrity, and data security.
1. Data Mapping
In the software technology systems, a single unit of data travels back in the digital form, and either it maps data formation with Front-End or with Back-End users. Therefore, most of the major points about data mapping take place:
- When a user enters data at the front end side, which is then mapped to correct tables in the database server.
- If data gets an update from the user end, probably with the same thing, fewer modifications on data need to be updated to the database.
2. ACID Properties Validation
These properties stand for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. ACID properties provide stability in database loading and high security of the data.
Atomicity: It simply gives that a transaction is either “PASS” or “FAIL” element. There is no middle state in between them like an update in the data. It also refers to the “All or Nothing” rule.
Consistency: If any type of transaction exists at the user end, that must be conceived into a valid and legal state in the database.
Isolation: When multiple transactions execute at a single unit of time, then the state of the database must be far all over the transaction period.
Durability: Finally, some common external factors like system crash and power failure should not affect the data once the transaction is completed on the server.
3. Data Integrity
Either if changes happen in data or any record update in the database by any of the CRUD properties (Create, Retrieve, Update, and Delete), the latest information displays on each and every User due to its common interface. Therefore, the database testing cases must be designed in an easy way that validates the consistency of data sets at every display of the server.
4. Business Rule
A database always refers to components of database testing methods such as constraints, stored procedures methods, triggers, etc. Therefore, it is the duty of the database tester to compare all SQL queries to validate testing components.
How to Perform Database testing?
In the stage of database testing, the most important part is what and how we take a step forward with the database testing process as it is rightly said that “well begun is half done.”
Process of Database Testing
Below is the process of database testing.
1. Prepare Test Environment
An environment where an end-user has to perform database tests due to the database or a production database since that results of the test cases can be achieved, rather than changes can be removed in database code (as per test results).
2. Run a Test Case
Test cases revolve around individual processes of CRUD (Create, Read, Update, and Delete) operations. Operations either can be performed on the application, or related changes can be seen in the testing database OR execute SQL queries which are prepared by Tester/Developer, stored procedures, views, and triggers directly. Consequently, both test cases for every stored procedure and function pass values to desired elements, and it verifies the results. As a result, each of the stored procedure involves many blocks, procedures, or functions which have to be tested manually.
3. Verify Results
Furthermore, it includes the process of checking the same results of the SQL that we fired on the database. Therefore, verification is important to verify the test cases of a running application.
Validation happens when the right triggers get fired on the right SQL execution commands or stored procedures associated with the events, and correct tables/columns are prepared as per client requirements.
5. Report the Key Findings
Finally, as a result of the Business Analyst which allows projecting or client team and it shows the failure result if your criteria do not meet.
Types of Database Testing
Database testing has three main categories:
- Structural Testing,
- Functional Testing,
- Non-Functional Testing,
Structural testing, which defines as testing the structure of the code. This is only testing which requires developers to ensure the coding methods. This database testing has three parts:
- Schema Verification Process
- Row-Column Synchronization Process
- Server End Validations
Schema Verification Process: The main reason for this verification is to ensure a correct mapping between the Front-End and Back-End.
Row-Column Process: This process involves the data fields at the front end and rows & columns at the back end in terms of field lengths, data types, and naming conventions of the database.
Server End Validations: It involves three basic key points:
- Validation of server as per business needs,
- Authorization checks for users,
- A maximum number of transactions per user.
It plays an important role in an application and its web page. This testing process is a set process in software development. Below are the key points that must be verified while performing this database testing:
Data Integrity and Consistency: Data Integrity and consistency are the means of keeping the accuracy of data. Fields do not contain null values.
Data Security: Data Security gives organize digital data from another world. It prevents data integrity, secures the confidential data of user and client, and personal details.
Database limits of a single unit of data or the whole system put together in the test cases. It plays an important role in finding the extreme ends of usage data limits and performance of a database.
Non-Functional database testing contains two parts of testing which as:
Load Testing: In addition to database testing, load testing commonly analyzes the database filter under an expected load. Consequently, it also defines the performance of database testing under normal and worst conditions. Furthermore, it shows below which is a very useful key point for load testing as follows;
- Response time for each transaction,
- Performance of system components under data loads,
- Network delay in client and the server.
Stress Testing: Stress testing is that which defines the output of the database as the data load for the operational limit and is to a break certain point. It also defines the robustness and error handling of the database. Therefore, most of the major point for stress testing are as follows:
- System failure under the worst conditions can be the result of data loss,
- Test data for stress testing should be the most used transactions.
Database testing plays a very important role in the software development life cycle (SDLC). Database testing often takes place after code building in the SDLC phases. The testing process considers a few phases in the test case of a running state of the applications. Furthermore, the main reason for database testing is to find out bug failure in the test cases before the final delivery to the client.